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Microorganisms and foods

Microorganisms and foods

Microorganisms and foods

Food poisoning The term sickness or intoxication is applied to acute stomach flu caused by the body process of food contaminated with bound pathogens and/or toxins.
In developing countries, sickness is promoted by:
- the recent climate of most of them.
- the shortage of development of hygiene services that creates all management not possible.
-The shortage of living that creates the buyer settle for the altered food.

1. Microbic Contamination Of Food:

Besides plants and animals, there's an outsized population of living organisms invisible to the naked eye: they're microorganisms. Of these, some square measures dangerous for humans once they colonize and grow on the foods they consume.

- Bacteria

 Some bacterium square measures helpful for food processing: they cause fermentation in food: this can be the case of these used for instance within the fermentation of yogurt (lactic acid bacteria). Others have undesirable effects on food: they cause gas releases, unpleasant odors, style changes, etc. Still others square measure dangerous for the health of consumers: they're referred to as microorganism pathogens.
Under ideal conditions, every bacteria splits in 0.5 every twenty minutes.
Thus, once eight hours, bacteria offer birth to sixteen, bacteria. Microorganisms multiply therefore terribly quickly. As a result, the chance of food spoilage by microorganisms will so increase terribly quickly.


It is a gaggle of bacterium happiness to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Coliform is any gram-negative, non-sporulating, facultative anaerobic B capable of chemical process disaccharide in forty-eight hours, with the formation of acid and gas, at 37 ° C. E. coli may be a typical coliform. however there are different coliforms: Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella. In biological science food coliforms square measure a flora indicative of dirty  contamination and sensible markers of the overall healthful quality of a food

Certain bacterium (Clostridium and B spp for example) may also, below-bound conditions (rarefaction of the nutrients necessary for the lifetime of the cell for example), to supply spores that square measure a variety of survival of the cell terribly resistant, with the warmth and extreme pH for instance. The reproductive structure remains dormant until growing conditions become favorable again; it then germinates to allow birth to the bacteria in its "normal" kind.


Yeasts develop either on the surface or at depth of food (solid or liquid media). Some yeasts square measure grownup industrially and marketed for his or her specific properties of fermentation of sugars and partial conversion of those into alcohol and gas (production of brew and different hard alcoholic beverages, bread production victimization baker's yeast).
A number of fermentation processes and merchandise derived therefrom think about the employment of yeasts. they will be classified into seven categories:
- baker's yeasts and shop merchandise
- still and brew yeasts
- yeasts of wine creating and wines - yeasts of works and spirits
- yeast-foods
- yeast merchandise
- industrial alcohol and fuel


Molds area unit microbes composed of many cells. they're referred to as microscopic fungi or fungi. Their constituent cells area unit united to every alternative by fine and branched filaments referred to as "mycelium".
Saprophytic molds contaminate foods and degrade them qualitatively. a number of them area unit toxinogenic and unleash into the food mycotoxins that represent an excellent danger from a health purpose of view: - Aspergillusflavus produces aflatoxins, biological weapon B1 may be a powerful matter. - Aspergillusclavatus produces the patulin symptom agent inflicting pneumonic and cerebral hemorrhages. - Fusariumsporotrichoides and connected species manufacture numerous toxins like trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, etc. a number of these toxins area unit terribly heat-stable (30 min at two hundred ° C)

Protozoa area unit microorganisms happiness to the kingdom. {they area unit|they're} composed of one cell and are able to move in liquid media. several of them area unit parasites of humans and animals. they're characterized by changes in form by manufacturing cysts or alternative styles of resistance.
Protozoa area unit to blame for generally terribly serious diseases like enteral diseases like protozoal infection and protozoal infection. within the case of protozoal infection, once cysts enter the canal, through vegetables consumed raw, amoebae resume their active life, multiply quickly and cause infectious disease, a condition characterized by frequent stools and bloody.

Giardiasis may be a quite common parasitic malady worldwide, inflicting eating disorder, abdominal pain, bloating, belching, nausea and even physiological reaction. The agent to blame for the malady is flagellate protozoan lamblia. Epidemics typically come back from surface water and therefore the most contaminated foods area unit fruit salads, sandwiches, contemporary vegetables, and milk. Transmission is by the fecal route or orally.